Inglés/Gramática/Determinantes

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«Gramática»

EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO

En inglés el artículo indefinido es a/an que en español equivale a uno/una.

·En inglés a se utiliza para nombres que empiezan por consonante. ·An se usa para nombres que empiezan por vocal.

             a book   - un libro
             an apple - una manzana
         El sonido primero del nombre (no necesariamente la letra) distingue entre «a» y «an»:
             a horse / an hour      - un caballo / una hora
             a university / an ulna - una universidad / un cúbito

pero a/an en conjunto y cumpliendo esta regla se utiliza: Delante de un nombre singular, contable, que se menciona por primera vez en la oración, Delante de profesiones, Con expresiones de precio, velocidad, etc.

nunca se utiliza: delante de nombres en pluraL,delante de nombres que no sean contables

Determiners (Determinantes)
Artículos y demostrativos Posesivos
a un / una b my mi
the el / la / los / las your tu
this este / esta his su (de él)
that ese / esa / aquel / aquella her su (de ella)
these estos / estas - suyo (de ello)
those aquellos / aquellas our nuestro
you vosotros your vuestro
they ellos their su (de ellos)

Contrasta las diferencias entre los determinantes posesivos y los pronombres posesivos.

ARTICLES LEARN ENGLISH DEFINITE ARTICLES English Definite Articles are the words we use to define the nouns (specifically). In English we only have one definite article, we are talking about the word "the ". The English article will always precede the noun that it is determining. Eg: The dog. (El perro) (article + noun)

The white house on the green hill. (La casa blanca sobre la colina verde) (article + adjective + noun + preposition + article + adjective + noun)

Unlike Spanish, in English we do not distinguish between masculine and feminine, singular and plural forms in the articles and adjectives . So the English article "the" is the equivalent to the Spanish articles "EL, LA, LOS, LAS". This single form "the" is used with all kinds of nouns, singular, plural, countable and uncountable.



SOME GENERAL USES

We generally use the definite article to refer to a particular person or object. This means that both, the person who is talking and the person who is listening, know which person or object has been mentioned. E.g: The book you lent me is very interesting. (El libro que me prestaste es muy interesante)

The boy with the bicycle came this morning. (El niño con la bicicleta vino esta mañana)

We also use the definite article to speak about a person or object that has been mentioned previously. E.g: I bought a book last week but now I can't find the book. (Compré un libro la semana pasada pero ahora no puedo encontrar el libro)

In a similar case, we use the definite article when we speak about an object or person where it is impossible to get mistaken to which one we are referring. E.g: It is on the table. (Está sobre la mesa)

Close the door behind you, please. (Cierra la puerta detrás de tí, por favor)


It is also used to group objects or people by an adjective. E.g: The Irish are very polite. (Los irlandeses son muy educados)


To speak about public places, the use of the definite article is going to determine the meaning of the sentence, that is, if the definite article is present, our sentence is going to have a different meaning than that of the same sentence without the definite article. E.g: John is in hospital (in this case John is a patient) (John está en el hospital) In Spanish we always use the definite article before the names of public places.

John is in the hospital (John está en el hospital) In this example, John can be working there or visiting a patient, however he might not be a patient in the hospital.

SOME GENERAL OMISSIONS OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE



We do not use the definite article before plural nouns when we speak about them in a general way. E.g: Cars are expensive. (Los coches son caros) We mean that all the cars in the world are expensive and not a specific brand of cars.

We never use a definite article before proper nouns, including the names of the streets. E.g: I see Mary every day. (Veo a Mary todos los días)

I see Mrs. Smith every day. (Veo a la señora Smith todos los días)

We walked down Oxford Street. (Bajamos la calle Oxford)

For dates, although they can be written without "the" in the spoken language it is used. E.g: 9th March 2005 (9 de marzo de 2005) (in the spoken language we would say: the ninth of March 2005)

When talking about substances, materials or colours we do not use the definite article before the them. E.g: Red is a bright colour. (El rojo es un color vivo)

Steel is a very heavy metal. (El acero es un metal muy pesado)


When talking about the parts of the body and using the verb "to have" we also have to omit the definite article. E.g: That girl has blue eyes. (Esa niña tiene los ojos azules)





The conjunction "and" joins the sentences: "we eat at home" with "we work in the office".




We divide conjunctions in Coordinating, Correlative and Subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions are used when we want to join two sentences that work at the same level of importance in our speech, both actions are equally important. These conjunctions are:



And (y) Now (ahora bien) But (pero) Still (sin embargo) So (así que) Only (sólo que) Therefore (por lo tanto) Yet (pero, sin embargo) Nevertheless (no obstante) For (ya que) However (sin embargo) Either...or... (o... o.) While (mientras) Neither. nor. (ni. ni.) Then (entonces) So then (por tanto)



Eg:

We had a salad and an ice cream. (Nos tomamos una ensalada y un helado)

In this example we are using the coordinating conjunction "and" to join two objects within the same sentence.

We went to the swimming pool and had lunch there. (Fuimos a la piscina y comimos allí)

In this example we are using the coordinating conjunction "and" to join two different sentences, "we went to the swimming pool" with "(we) had lunch there".



Correlative conjunctions are used to join, or simply to show any relation, between the idea or different ideas mentioned in different parts of the sentence. They are always used in pairs. These conjunctions are:

Either..or (o.o) If . then (si . entonces) Neither. nor (ni.ni) No sooner . than (apenas . cuando) Both . and (y.y) Scarcely . when (apenas . cuando) Not only . but also (no solo . pero también) What with . and Rather . than (en vez de) Whether . or (si . o) Eg:

You have two options, either you learn English, or you learn Spanish. (Tienes dos opciones, o aprendes Inglés, o aprendes Español)

In this example, we are using the correlative conjunction "either . or" to show the relation, in this case of option, between "you learn English" and "you learn Spanish".

Subordinating conjunctions are used to join two sentences when one of them is depending on the first one. They are:



That (que) Although, though (aunque) Because of (debido a) While (en tanto que) Since (ya que, puesto que) Until (hasta que) As (pues, como) As if, as though (como si) So that (a fin de que) When (cuando) Lest (para que no) Why (por que) If (si) In order that (para, a fin de que) Unless (a menos que) Whether... or (si... o)



Eg:

This is the restaurant that I told you about. (Este es el restaurante del que te hablé)

In this example, the subordinating conjunction "that" introduces the sentence "I told you about" which is dependent on the first sentence "this is the restaurant".