Teoría del Transporte Aéreo/El marco asociativo

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IATA. The International Air Transport Association[editar]


  • Founded in Havana in April 1945.
  • 57 members from 31 nations, mostly North American and European.
  • Modern IATA is the successor to the International Air Traffic Association founded in the Hague in 1919, the year of the first scheduled services.


  • To promote safe, regular and economical air transport for the benefit of the world’s consumers, to foster air commerce and to study the problems connected therewith.
  • To provide means of collaboration among air transport enterprises engaged directly or indirectly in international air transport service.
  • To cooperate with newly created ICAO, the specialized UN agency for civil aviation and other international organizations.

Early days:

  • The old IATA was able to start small and grow gradually. It was limited to a European dimension until 1939, when Pan American joined.
  • The post 1945 IATA had to handle worldwide responsibilities with a more systematic organization and a larger infrastructure.
  • The most important tasks of IATA were technical, because safety and reliability are fundamental to airline operations, requiring the highest standards in air navigation, airport infrastructures and flight operations.
  • IATA provided vital inputs to ICAO and to International Telecommunications Union.
  • IATA helped to mesh international conventions, developed through ICAO, with US air transport law which had developed in isolation prior to WWII.
  • IATA made a vital input to the development of Conditions of Carriage (the airline ticket contract) and airline liability for passenger injury (Warsaw Convention signed in 1929).
  • IATA gave answers to questions like:
    • Who can fly where?
    • What prices are to be charged?
    • How multi-airline journey (interline) to be divided up?
    • How airlines settle their accounts?
  • Chicago convention failed to give an answer to the two preceding questions, who flies and where?
  • These questions were resolved on a bilateral basis taking as model Bermudas Agreement of 1946, signed between UK and USA. At the stream of this model 4000 bilateral air transport agreements were signed and registered with ICAO.
  • Although governments tried to oversee air fares, but they could not and IATA was delegated to hold Traffic Conferences, with all fares and rates subject to final government approval.
  • Two objectives were present in these Conferences:
    • Prevent cut-throat competence.
    • Ensure low fares in the interest of consumers.
  • A coherent fare pattern was established enabling airlines to accept each others ’ tickets on multi-sector journeys, thus giving birth to interlining.
  • As a result of interlining today 50 million international passengers a year pay for their ticket in one place, in one currency, but complete their journey using at least two, and sometimes five or more airlines from different countries using different currencies.
  • The first worldwide Traffic Conference was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1947 dealing, among others, with:
    • Fare construction for multi-sector trips.
    • Revenue allocation.
    • Baggage allowances.
    • Tickets and Airway bill design.
    • Agency appointment.
  • This has led to:
    • The Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreements. Close to 300 airlines signed it, accepting each other’s tickets and AWB on a reciprocal basis.
    • Passenger and Cargo Services Conferences, prescribing a variety of standards formats and technical specifications.
    • Passenger and Cargo Agency Agreements and Sales Agency Rules, governing the relationship between airlines and accredited agents.
  • Debt Settlement between airlines, arising largely from interlining, takes place through a Clearing House.
  • In 1947, 17 airlines cleared US$ 26 million.
  • In 1994, 380 participants cleared US$ 22,8 billion.
  • Typically 90% of debts between participants are offset and there is no need for cash transfer.

Growth and Development:

  • Impetus coming from technical innovation produced an annual double digit rates growth, in international air transport, from 1945 to first oil crisis in 1973.
  • Those main innovations were, turbo-prop aircraft (early 50s), transatlantic jets (1958), wide body jets (1970) with high by-pass engines and advanced avionics.
  • These meant greater speeds and sizes, better cost control and subsequently, lower real fares.
  • Combined with increased real incomes and more leisure time, the effect was an explosion in demand for air travel.
  • Increased demand for travel led to increased activity for IATA.
  • IATA technical work evolved into seven broad areas as follows:
    • Avionics and Telecommunications.
    • Engineering and Environment.
    • Airports.
    • Flight Operations.
    • Medical standards.
    • Facilitation.
    • Security.
  • IATA was very active advising industry on new aircraft and systems.
  • Assisted in the development of the Tokyo, Haghe and Montreal Conventions, the first international legal counter-measures to prevent aircraft sabotage and hijacking.
  • Standardization on inter-company data exchange.
  • Unit Load Devices, or ULD, mainly containers, allow rapid, economical cargo handling, Dangerous Goods Regulation and Live Animals Regulations were among others IATA developed regulations.

A « Two Tier » IATA:

  • The steadily increase of « leisure travel », the challenge for filling new wide body aircraft, extension of air travel to a greater people base, new travel products, fares flexibilty, etc., led to a much needed IATA Traffic Conferences modification.
  • Although domestic, the US Aviation Act of 1978, had important international repercussions.
  • The new relations between US and ECAC States.
  • Eventually IATA was reorganised on a two-tier basis in October 1979. The tiers comprised:
    • Trade Association (technical, legal, financial, traffic services and most agency matters).
    • Tariff Coordination (passenger fares and cargo rates, agents ’ commissions).

The future From a new Trade Association to a new Strategic Thrust:

  • The IATA that has emerged since 1979 has put an increasing share of its resources into Trade Association activities.
  • Much of IATA funding comes now from the marketing of its products and services to Member Airlines.
  • IATA’s role remains central on air transport (annual world growth rates range of 5-6%, typically twice the rate of general economic growth).

The IOSA IATA Operations Safety Audit (IOSA) :

  • The IATA established IOSA, an internationally accepted evaluation system, designed to assess the operational management and control systems of airlines.
  • IOSA is designed to maximize quality, integrity and security, so mutually interested airlines can comfortably accept IOSA audit reports.

Today (2005) IATA members:

  • IATA has 256 members that represent 94% of total scheduled international traffic.
  • IATA airlines members had $36 billion of accumulated losses between 2001 and 2004.
  • For 2005 there is a prediction of $7,4 billion losses, $8 billion losses coming from US airlines.

AEA. Association of European Airlines[editar]


  • AEA shall in general serve the common interests of the airline members
  • Represents member’s interests to the institutions of EU, ECAC, individual governments and others.
  • Respecting the independence of action of its members will foster the co-operation among its members.


  • AEA shall collect, analyze and interpret information and carry out research required by the activities which it undertakes.
  • AEA shall, whenever appropriate, liaise with associations or authorities whose activities and roles are relevant to the objectives of the AEA, respecting the autonomy of the AEA.
  • AEA is non-profit-making association. Secretary General normally acts as spokesman.


  • AEA traces back to 1952, when Presidents of Air France, KLM, SABENA and Swissair, formed a joint study group, shortly afterwards expanded with the addition of BEA and SAS.
  • In February 1954, the Air Research Bureau (ARB) was established, changing the name to AEA in 1973.
  • 1954 Strasburg Conference, leading to ECAC creation, encouraged air carriers to undertake cooperative studies aimed at promoting an orderly development of the European air transport.
  • AEA formed the following standing committees and permanent study groups:
    • Research and Planning.
    • Airline Industry Affairs.
    • Technical Affairs.
    • Commercial and Aeropolitical Committee.
    • Infrastructure & Environment.
    • Research & Information.
    • Legal matters.
    • Social Affairs.
    • Research & Information.
    • Legal matters.
    • Remuneration.
  • In November 2002 AEA determined it should become an airline driven lobbying organization.
  • Twice a year AEA member airlines Presidents meet to discuss the state of the industry.
  • AEA headquarters is located in Brussels.


  • Adria Airways.
  • Aer Kingus
  • Air France
  • Air Malta
  • Alitalia
  • Austrian
  • British Airways
  • Bmi
  • Cargolux
  • Jat Airways
  • KLM
  • LOT
  • Lufthansa
  • Olympic
  • SAS
  • SN Brussels Airlines
  • Croatia Airlines
  • CSA
  • Cyprus Airways
  • Icelandair
  • Spanair
  • Swiss
  • TAP
  • Turkish Airlines
  • Virgin Atlantic.

ERA. European Regions Airline Association[editar]

Mission: To continue to be the principal body representing the interests of organizations involved in air transport in Europe’s regions by:

  • Influencing regulatory and environment conditions.
  • Facilitating technical cooperation.
  • Gaining public and political support.

History: Founded in 1980 with just 5 members.

ERA is governed by a Board and has five departments:

  • Technical Services (Operations, Maintenance, Air Safety and Security)
  • Corporate Communications.
  • Air Transport Policy.
  • Business Development.
  • Infrastructure and Environment.


  • Over 230 companies.
  • 70 airlines.
  • Operating to over 250 European airports.
  • 1300 plus aircraft.
  • 1800 city pairs.
  • 83 million passengers per year.
  • 2,2 million flights.

Business data (2005):

  • 524 Km average distance sector.
  • 57% of ERA passengers travel for business.
  • Uses hub airports to small airports (less than 20 staff).
  • Passenger throughout ERA airports range from 4000 to 21 million passengers per year.
  • 14% of passengers connect to international services.
  • 67 seats aircraft average capacity.
  • 95% of ERA passengers fly on scheduled services.
  • Less than 8 years is the average aircraft age.
  • « Hub bypassing » is becoming more and more important.
  • More than 50% of the fleet is comprised of jet aircraft.
  • Fastest growing segment of air transport industry (over 10% growth per year during the last 10 years)

CCAA: City Centre Airports Association[editar]

Mission:To promote the safe, efficient and environmentally sustainable growth of City Centre Airports by dialogue with:

  • Airlines.
  • Aircraft and engines manufacturers.
  • Environmentalists.
  • National and International Regulators.

And develop best practices through dialogue between members.

Objectives: The primary goal is:

  • To work with aircraft and engine manufacturers to ensure that there will be aircraft available to cope with the environmental requirements of City Centre Airports in the future.
  • Environmental requirements on and around City Centre Airports grow faster than aircraft manufacturers ability to create aircraft with mach lower noise and emissions.
  • Together with Airlines using our airports, CCAA have been working very hard to get the City Centre requirements known to aircraft and engine manufacturers.
  • The more airports are in CCAA, the more power we have to create the change.

The secondary goal is:

  • To share experiences and information that enhances managements ’s capabilities.
  • Often, City Centre Airports requirements are different from traditional airports.
  • So CCAA focus on our specific organisations and problems, not always coinciding with the topics in ACI regular meetings.
  • To develop these objectives CCAA has two committees: Marketing and Technical.

Members: Airport members:

  • Belfast City (BFS).
  • Berne-Belp (BRN).
  • Stockholm-Bromma (BMA).
  • Berlin-Tempelhof (THF).
  • Florence (FLR)
  • London City (LCY).
  • Düsseldorf Express.
  • Rotterdam (RTM).
  • Split (SPU).

Associated members:

  • Bombardier.
  • Malmö Aviation.
  • Bae Regional Aircraft.
  • Fornebu Project.
  • Gensler.
  • Saab Aircraft Leasing.

Passengers (2004): Falta objeto multimedia.

Movements (2004): Falta objeto multimedia.

ELFAA. European Low Fare Airlines Association[editar]

Mission: Mission Statement: To ensure that European policy and legislation promote free and equal competition to enable the continued growth and development of low fares into the future, allowing a greater number of people to travel by air. This will be achieved by:

  • Identifying policy areas affecting the low fares sector.
  • Effectively influencing regulatory issues.
  • Promoting the common interests of its members in the various European institutions.

Background: Historically flag and charter carriers have been well represented in Brussels (E.U.) and other decision-making fore. Low fares airlines are relatively new entrants but with a fast growth rate and their needs and those of its customers were not protected.

  • Identifying policy areas affecting the low fares sector.
  • Effectively influencing regulatory issues.
  • Promoting the common interests of its members in the various European institutions.

Background and milestones: Towards the end of 2002 certain low fare airlines realized that the needs of the low fares sector were not represented and joined forces to lobby for changes to protect their interests and th interest of their customers.

  • ELFAA established in 2003.
  • Main European institutions (European Commission, European Council, European Parliament and Eurocontrol) expressed the utility of having low fare airline’s views expressed through European industry group. Promoting the common interests of its members in the various European institutions.

Members and statistics (2004):

  • ELFAA represents 238 aircraft carrying 59 millions passengers per annum, approximately the 20% share of inter-European traffic.

Members and statistics (2005):

Airline Country Fleet Countries Served Destinations Routes Employees Annual Passengers
Air Berlin Germany 46 15 85 832 2.300 13.800.000
Flybe UK 30 7 42 113 1.500 4.500.000
Hapag-Lloyd Express Germany 11 9 28 61 315 2.700.000
Norwegian Air Shuttle Germany 13 13 29 25 380 2.100.000
Ryanair Ireland 79 19 94 211 2.200 27.500.000
Sky Europe Slovakia 13 13 22 64 485 950.000
Sterling Denmark 12 11 31 105 610 1.800.000
Sverige Flyg Sweden 2 1 5 3 25 150.000
transavia.com The Nederlands 26 17 62 71 1.550 4.200.000
Wizz Air Hungary 6 10 15 30 250 900.000
easyJet UK
Myair.com Italy
Total 238 413 1.515 9.615 58.600.000
Airline Fleet Type
Air Berlin 35 x Boeing 737-800 5 x Boeing 737-400 3 x Boeing 737-700 3 x Fokker F100
Flybe 16 x Bombardier Q400 8 x BAe146-300 6 x BAe146-200
Hapag-Lloyd Express 8 x Boeing 737-700 3 x Boeing 737-500
Norwegian 13 x Boeing 737-300
Ryanair 70 x Boeing 737-800 9 x Boeing 737-200
Sky Europe 7 x Boeing 737-500 6 x Embraer 120 ER
Sterling 10 x Boeing 737-800 2 x Boeing 737-700
Sverigeflyg 2 x Saab 340
Transavia 9 x Boeing 737-700 17 x Boeing 737-800
Wizzair 6 x Airbus A320

TIACA. The International Air Cargo Association[editar]

Mission and objectives:

To advance the interests of air cargo industry and strengthen its contribution to worldwide scale by:

  • Pledging to support and assist progressive liberalization of the global market and trade between developing countries and developed economies.
  • Working to help develop world trade by reducing costs through enhanced competition of unnecessary or unfair regulatory constraints.
  • Widen market access by removal or reduction of constraints imposed on by its current dependence on bilateral traffic rights agreements, focused primary for passenger services.
  • Identify and oppose any new regulations that could increase air cargo operations burden or hamper its performance capabilities.
  • Construct and promote strategies and principles that will reconcile legitimately existing concerns for sound environmental policies with the continuing need for an increase in airfreight competition, particularly in developing economies.
  • Secure consistent progress in the efficiency and integrity of relevant regulations, especially customs services.
  • Raise industry performances standards.
  • Develop appropriate educational training and learning programs.


TIACA’s roots go back to 1960, when a committee of the SAE, launched the first International Air Cargo Forum to explore the needs of the emerging cargo industry, centered in stimulating interest in the new and growing air cargo business, developing common standards in equipment, ground handling and procedures for this emerging industry.

A structural change in direction, from engineering to marketing, led to a separation from SAE in 1990, and The International Air Cargo Association was created.

In 1994 the association was reorganized and TIACA was registered in the British Cayman Islands as a nonprofit and an expanded mission, the association’s international character.

TIACA is today the recognized leader in bringing together multiple interests in the air cargo world trade and is tied to the future of vibrant international air cargo industry.

TIACA is a worldwide organization that serves a membership which includes all major segments of the air cargo logistics industry: airlines, forwarders, airports, ground handlers, all-cargo carriers, road carriers, customs brokers, logistics, integrators, shippers, educational institutions and their students involved in air cargo training.

Site and Administration:

Although TIACA is registered in the Cayman Islands, the General Secretariat is in Miami, where all daily ongoing operations are conducted.

TIACA is governed its trustee members, representing many of the world’s major organizations directly involved in the air cargo industry. The trustees make up the Board of Directors which elects the officers and the Executive Council every two years to manage the organization and establish its policy.

TIACA accomplishes much of its work through active committee structure which oversees policy and performance in several areas. The overall activity is monitored by two oversight committees, Finance and Operations.


  • Publishes industry position and the TIACA Times newsletter.
  • Has developed research relationships with several universities.
  • Supports conferences and workshops related with air cargo.
  • Attends as representative of air cargo industry in fora like, ICAO, WTO, OECD, etc.

Las Alianzas[editar]

Las principales alianzas globales (2005):



  • Air Canada
  • Air New Zealand
  • ANA
  • Asiana Airlines
  • Austrian
  • Bmi
  • LOT Polish Airlines
  • Lufthansa
  • Mexicana
  • SAS
  • Singapore Airlines
  • Spanair
  • TAP
  • THAI
  • United
  • US Airways
  • VARIG.

  • 24% de los PKT mundiales (2003).
  • Destinos a 759 aeropuertos de 139 países (2005).

ONE WORLD[editar]


  • Aer Lingus
  • American Airlines
  • British Airways
  • Cathay Pacific
  • Finnair
  • Iberia
  • Lan Chile
  • Qantas.

  • 17% de los PKT mundiales (2003).
  • Destino a unos 600 aeropuertos de 135 países con más de 8000 vuelos diarios (2005).

SKY TEAM[editar]


  • Air France
  • Alitalia
  • Continental Airlines
  • CSA
  • Delta
  • KLM
  • Korean Air
  • NWA

  • 12% de los PKT mundiales (2003, en este año KLM y NWA formaban parte de la alianza Worldwide Reliability).
  • Destino a 684 aeropuertos de 133 paises y 15207 vuelos diarios (2005).


Ejemplo alianza regional (2003):

  • Miembros: Avianca, SAM y ACES (Colombia).
  • Integración de rutas.
  • Interlining.
  • Uso conjunto salas VIP.
  • Integración planes Frequent Traveller.