Interfaz gráfica con Tkinter
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Puedes descargar la versión más reciente de esta guía gratuitamente en la web https://github.com/eliluminado/Guia-Tkinter
Algo muy buscado en Python son las guías sobre interfaces gráficas, ya sea PyGTK, PyQt, WxPython o Tkinter entre las más conocidas teniendo cada una sus ventajas y desventajas, así como cada una tiene facilidades y complicaciones en su uso y aplicación. En esta oportunidad les daremos un espacio a Tkinter e intentaremos ser lo más claros posible sin pasarnos por alto los pequeños detalles en lo que compone la creación de una interfaz gráfica en Python con el “toolkit” Tkinter.
Tabla de contenido[editar]
- Empezando por lo básico
- Gestión del diseño
- Menúes y barras de herramientas
- Ventanas de diálogo
- Ejemplos Avanzados
- Notas finales
- Enlaces de interés
Cuadro de texto [Entry][editar]
Este widget nos permite tanto mostrarle información al usuario como también obtenerla de su parte, dotando a nuestra ventana de un widget muy poderoso y útil, siendo el primero de los widgets mencionados que nos posibilitara la interacción del usuario solicitando la entrada de datos. Como venimos haciendo en esta guía se mostraran algunos conceptos básicos que te permitirán empezar a utilizarlo, pero luego en la sección 'Opciones' se detallan las opciones que tienen disponibles al crear un cuadro de texto.
Este elemento es muy popular y sumamente útil así que deberemos de conocerlo y manejarlo, para esto comencemos explicando algunos conceptos básicos para entender mejor de se trata esto.
Para empezar a utilizar nuestro elemento 'Entry' podemos primero declarar una variable del tipo 'StringVar' o del tipo 'IntVar' (tenemos mas opciones disponibles pero se verán mas detenidamente en otra sección), estas variables capturan el texto que el usuario ingrese en el cuadro de texto para luego poder trabajar con esos datos, aunque esta practica es muy recomendada y hasta imprescindible en ocasiones, no es un requisito obligatorio para utilizar nuestro cuadro de texto como es visto en algunos sitios web.
Por esto veremos primero un uso mas básico para luego entrar mas en detalle e incorporar estas variables a nuestro repertorio.
La forma en que se declara un cuadro de texto es muy simple:
campo_de_texto = Tkinter.Entry(root)
Esa es su forma mas básica en donde como se observa no se llama a ninguna de las opciones que tenemos disponibles, antes de ver los métodos que podemos llamar para hacer uso de este widget veamos un ejemplo de su uso:
>>> import Tkinter >>> root = Tkinter.Tk() >>> campo_de_texto = Tkinter.Entry(root) >>> campo_de_texto.pack() >>> campo_de_texto.get() >>>
Si escribiéramos un texto en el cuadro y escribimos en la consola lo siguiente:
estaríamos usando el método 'get' del widget Entry que nos permite obtener el texto que contenga el cuadro de texto, como podemos observar en el siguiente ejemplo:
>>> import Tkinter >>> root = Tkinter.Tk() >>> campo_de_texto = Tkinter.Entry(root) >>> campo_de_texto.pack() >>> # En este caso escribí "CodigoPython.com.ar" >>> campo_de_texto.get() 'CodigoPython.com.ar' >>>
Seguramente ese rectángulo en nuestra ventana de poco serviría si no pudiésemos interactuar con este. A continuación veremos los métodos a lo podemos llamar para trabajar con este widget.
Una observación que se debe hacer, es que para escribir varias lineas de texto se debe utilizar el widget 'Text' que esta pensado para esto, que sera visto mas adelante.
Menúes y barras de herramientas[editar]
Ventanas de diálogo[editar]
Enlaces de interés[editar]
- Tcl/Tk 8.5 Manual
- Entorno grafico en Python
- Interfaces gráficas de usuario en Python
- Python » GUI Tk
- Thinking in Tkinter
- An Introduction to Tkinter
- Tkinter 8.4 reference: a GUI for Python
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